Les divers paramètres à considérer pour fixer son loyer

Publié mercredi 07 août 2019 Commenter 57
comment fixer son loyer

Le bailleur profite d’une grande liberté dans le cadre de la détermination du loyer de son bien. Ce n’est pas pour autant qu’il est autorisé d’en profiter. Proposer des montants trop élevés risque de faire fuir les locataires. Raison pour laquelle il est indispensable de se baser sur certains paramètres, notamment le rendement voulu, et les offres sur le marché. Parfois, il peut même être nécessaire de se conformer à certains plafonds de loyer.

La fixation d’un loyer se fait librement. Un propriétaire détermine le rendement locatif de son bien immobilier comme bon lui semble. Cette liberté se termine au moment où le marché de l’offre et de la demande prime. En proposant des loyers excessivement élevés, le bailleur promeut les offres concurrentes.

La stratégie gagnante consiste à faire une estimation du rendement souhaité, et d’y baser sa formule de calcul. Sinon, le propriétaire peut tout simplement ajuster le montant de son loyer au même niveau, que ceux des biens similaires. Certains bailleurs s’exposent même à des plafonds de loyer.

Le bailleur est libre de fixer son propre tarif

Aucune législation ne régit la fixation du loyer d’un logement, du moins, pour le moment. Le bailleur peut établir le montant, à sa guise, et ce, même lors de changements de locataire. Cette liberté se termine toutefois au moment de l’entrée des occupants. La révision annuelle est la seule modification autorisée.

Baser sa formule sur le rendement voulu

En misant sur un minimum de rationalité, le propriétaire procèdera, par lui-même, au calcul de la rentabilité attendue. Le bailleur commence par déterminer le taux de rendement envisagé. Pour un logement acheté à 100 000 euros, il faut un loyer minimal de 420 euros, pour obtenir un rendement de 5%.

La stratégie gagnante est de procéder à ce calcul, en amont de l’acquisition du bien. À savoir que les petites surfaces (Studio et T1) rapportent davantage que les grands volumes (Maison, appartement, deux et trois pièces).

La méthode de la comparaison

Cette technique est très répandue. Elle consiste à comparer son bien aux logements similaires, sis dans les mêmes zones. Pour ce faire, il suffit de parcourir les petites annonces locatives. Certaines visites peuvent parfois être nécessaires. Se renseigner auprès des observatoires de loyer en ligne est aussi une stratégie qui fonctionne.

Les principaux critères pris en compte concernent le rendement énergétique et le niveau de confort. Ainsi, il est essentiel d’offrir de très hautes performances en matière de confort et de consommation énergétique, pour obtenir les meilleurs rendements.

Ne pas proposer plus qu’il n’en faut

De nombreux bailleurs ont fait l’erreur de proposer des loyers plus élevés que la moyenne sur le marché. Or, cette méthode incite les locataires à se tourner vers les offres concurrentes. Le risque de longue vacance locative est plus élevé.

Certains propriétaires choisissent de rattacher leurs contrats de location à un dispositif fiscal. Les baux encadrés par la Loi Pinel sont exposés à une durée de location minimale, et des plafonds de loyer. La limite imposée varie selon la zone :

-8,82 euros par mètre carré, mensuellement, dans la zone B2

-10,15 euros par mètre carré, mensuellement, dans la zone B1

-12,59 euros par mètre carré, mensuellement, dans la zone A

-16,96 euros par mètre carré, mensuellement, dans la zone A1

Cependant, les bailleurs ne sont pas obligés de se conformer aux plafonds exigés. Le marché de l’offre, et de la demande est toujours à prioriser. Si les loyers constatés sont à des niveaux bas, une stratégie d’adaptation est préconisée. L’objectif est de rester en raccord avec la demande locative.

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